(3)       The age of the universe

 

The outmost layer was expanded from   a0  to  a  in time  te ,  its equation is

or

                                                                                                                   (10)

Now put   L=constant,   upon solving this differential equation we obtain

The  te  is the minimum of expansion age from  Z=0   to  Z=2.3   because   
L=
constant.   Substituting the value of cosmic parameter (Table 1), we get 
te>18.6×10 years

Upon solving equation (10) or formula (14) can be written as

using   a0=ma  to find    

thus

Assuming   m=0.4   to be starting point of time, i.e.  t=0, we obtain 
age curve in Fig.3.

Initial velocity of outmost layer equals zero to be impossible. If there
 was Initial velocity about thousands of kilometer, this corresponded to the
 beginning of repulsion expansion from  m=0.98.
    

     

    

                         Fig.5 Age curve

 

       

 

 

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[note]

put  L=constant

When a=a0, , thus

Substituting  a0=μa ,  we  get