(3) The computation outside the sphere

 

    The velocity redshift is the same with in the sphere

    Substituting

into formula (12), we have

                       (23)

where Λ0 M  and  a  is obtain from the outmost layer.

    The total redshift is formula (13).

    When  Zv=1 , the total redshift is  Zmax ,  and the distance  rs  corresponding to  Zmax  is just the limit of sight, that is, the limiting distance of observation.