(3) The computation outside the sphere

The velocity redshift is the same with in the sphere

_{
}

Substituting

_{
}

_{
}

into formula (12), we have

_{
}
(23)

where
Λ_{0
}，M
and a
is obtain from the outmost layer.

The total redshift is formula (13).

When Z_{v}=1 , the
total redshift is Z_{max} ,
and the distance r_{s} corresponding
to Z_{max}
is just the limit of sight, that is, the limiting distance of
observation.