(4)  Z-M diagram

 

    The results computed are represented by two curve in Fig.7[7], and they are in very good agreement with observation. This show also the using Mv  to be correct.

    Quaser¡¯s  Z-m  diagram is platted according to the revised optical catalog of QSOs[8] in Fig. 8.  It appears that using  Mv=-24m.0  is not very different.

    There is lower limit for quasar¡¯s apparent magnitude, about 21m.0

    Diffusion of quasar¡¯s apparent magnitude is evolution effect mainly.

    The Hubble constant at central region of the universe is determined only be observation. For example, A.Sandage¡¯s and G.Tammann¡¯s observation value is H = 50-55.

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Fig.7

[7]  Kenneth R.Lang, Astrophysical Formulae, 1974, Fig. 35.

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Fig.8 
[8] A.Hewite and G.Burbidge, Ap.J.,43(1980),57-158.